Dr Caroline Horton
Academic Coordinator for the PhD Programme
School of Social Sciences

Academic Coordinator for the PhD Programme; Acting Academic Coordinator for Psychology

Caroline joined BGU in April 2015 and, alongside being an active researcher, contributes to the undergraduate BA Psychology courses and BGU’s PhD programme. Before joining BGU, Caroline obtained her undergraduate (2003) and Masters (2004) degrees in Psychology from the University of Durham, her PhD from the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds (2007), and a PGCHE from Leeds Metropolitan University (2008). Caroline has taught at the Universities of Durham and Leeds as well as the Open University, and predominantly at Leeds Metropolitan University where she was a Lecturer then Senior Lecturer (2007-2015). Her research interests principally span the fields of sleep, dreaming and memory, and the relationships between those concepts. Caroline’s research expertise is reflected in her teaching across a wide range of psychology modules. Caroline directs the DrEAMSLab here at BGU (see: www.dreamslab.co.uk / @sleepandmemory).


Caroline teaches across the BA Psychology suite of courses, specializing in Cognitive Psychology and Quantitative Methods, and dissertation supervision. She has been a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy since 2009. Caroline is currently Acting Academic Coordinator for the BA Psychology programme.


Caroline is an active researcher in the field of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, with a particular interest in studying dreaming as a reflection of autobiographical memory consolidation processes. Caroline conducts empirical research using a range of paradigms and has national and international collaborations spanning interests in sleep, memory, metamemory, emotion and dreaming.  Caroline’s research has been funded by the Dream Science Foundation, as well as the Royal Society, the BPS and Brain for international conference and training visits.

Current Projects

Caroline currently conducts several empirical and writing projects, including (but not limited to):

Horton, C.L. & Cole, S. Dreaming and future thought. (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation)

Horton, C.L., Llewellyn, S.(University of Manchester), Malinowski, J.E. (University of East London) & Blagrove, M.T. (Swansea University). What can dreaming teach us about sleep-dependent memory consolidation? (Funded by the BPS Research Seminars Competition)

Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. Do we dream to assimilate ‘important’ waking life experiences into our memory schemas? (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation)

Horton, C.L. The incorporation of emotional autobiographical memories into dreams reflects memory consolidation processes. (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation)

Caroline is also editing a forthcoming text book:

Horton, C.L. (Ed.) Sleep and Cognition (edited text book): Taylor and Francis.

Caroline currently supervises a number of PhD students:

Vytautas Nastajus (“Exploring sleep-dependent episodic memory consolidation using Virtual Environments”); BGU studentship, first supervisor

Anthony Bloxham (“Dreaming and memory consolidation in sleep”); BGU studentship, first supervisor

Teresa Garrod (“Great Expectations:  A Phenomenological inquiry into women’s experiences of maternity care following a previous perinatal loss”) BGU studentship, second supervisor

Jan Mackalski (“Diagnosis or not? The experience of parental decision making during the diagnostic process of Asperger’s Syndrome or High Functioning Autism”); BGU, second supervisor

Fiona Henrich (“The adaptive function of dreams in PTSD”); Swinbourne University, Australia, external supervisor.

Caroline has supervised doctoral students to completion and is always keen to hear from anyone interested in pursuing PhD research in sleep and learning.


Malinowski, J.E. & Horton, C.L. (2015) Metaphor and hyperassociativity: The imagination mechanisms behind emotional memory assimilation in sleep and dreams. Frontiers in Psychology. In press. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01132

Horton, C.L. & Malinowski. J.E. (2015) Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: Implications for memory consolidation in sleep. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 874. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00874

Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Differences in dreams of waking life from early-night to late-night sleep. Dreaming, 24(4), 253-269

Horton, C.L. (2014) Dream recall and confabulation. (2014) Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 34(2),163-177

Malinowski, J.E., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Memory sources of dreams: The incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences. Journal of Sleep Research, 23(4), 441-7

Malinowski, J., Fylan, F., & Horton, C.L. (2014). Experiencing ‘continuity’: A qualitative investigation of waking life in dreams. Dreaming, 24(3):161-175

Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Emotion but not stress modulates the incorporation of waking experiences into dreams. Dreaming, 24(1), 18-31

Kahan, T.A,. & Horton, C.L. (2012) Methodological challenges in dream research. In Barratt, D. (Ed). Encyclopaedia of Sleep and Dreaming

Horton, C.L. & Malinowski, J. (2011) Re-defining discontinuity: Implications for the functions of dreaming. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 34-36

Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L.(2011) Themes of continuity. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 42-48

Horton, C.L. (2011) Rehearsal of Dreams and Waking Events Improves the Quality, But Not the Quantity, of Autobiographical Recall. Dreaming, 21(3), 181-196

Horton, C.L. (2011) Recall and Recognition of Dreams and Waking Events: A Diary Paradigm. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(1), 8-16

Horton, C.L. (2010) A commentary on Blagrove et al.’s Dream-lag effect: Implications for memory sources. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(2), 392-393

Parke, A.R., & Horton, C.L. (2009) A re-examination of the interference hypothesis of dream recall and salience. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(2), 60-69

Horton, C.L., Moulin, C.J.A., & Conway, M.A. (2009) The self and dreams during a period of transition. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(3), 710-717

Horton, C.L. & Conway, M.A. (2009) The Memory Experiences and Dreams Questionnaire: A Validated Measure of Dream Remembering. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29(1), 3-29

Horton, C.L. (2008) Applying memory theory to dream recall: Are dreams and waking memories the same? In Kelley, M. R. (Ed). Applied Memory.  New York: Nova Science

Horton, C.L., Conway, M.A., and Cohen, G. (2007) Memory for thoughts and dreams. In Memory in the Real World, 2nd edition. Eds. Cohen, G. and Conway, M.A. Psychology Press


Plus several published conference abstracts and papers, additional presentations and seminars.

More Widely

Caroline is a chartered psychologist (CPsychol), a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, and a member of several academic associations (British Sleep Society, British Psychological Society Cognitive Section, International Association for the Study of Dreams (IASD), a research committee member of IASD, European Sleep Research Society, Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, Psychonomics Society member, Association of Psychological Science, and the Greater Yorkshire Memory Group). Caroline is a regular peer reviewer for several journals and is an action editor for Frontiers in Psychology. She has acted as an internal and external examiner at PhD level. Caroline was awarded the Emerging Researcher of the Year Award in 2011 by Leeds Metropolitan University (Awards in Excellence). Caroline’s research receives regular media coverage and she enjoys engaging non-academic audiences with healthy sleep and dreaming.

Caroline is the Deputy Chair of the Ethics Committee and also sits on the Research Committee, the Research Students’ Committee and the Doctoral Programmes Committee (the latter three in her role as AC for the PhD Programme).